Understanding when to issue a 1099 tax form

SDSU Extension
Farm Forum

BROOKINGS — A 1099 needs to be issued to any individual a farmer or rancher paid $600 or more to during 2017, who is not a full time employee.

“Farmers and ranchers regularly pay for services from individuals who are not their full time employees. Reporting this information to the IRS helps insure the receiver pays appropriate taxes on the income,” explained Jack Davis, SDSU Extension crops business management field specialist.

Davis said typical compensation includes payments made to self-employed workers and contractors as well as rent paid to landowners.

Remember to send 1099 forms early in the calendar year so recipients have adequate time for tax preparation.

About 1099 forms

For most farm and ranch-related work, the correct 1099 form to issue is the Form 1099-MISC. Payers are responsible for completing and sending a Form 1099-MISC to each payee.

Payers must also supply this form to the IRS. The payer also uses the information to calculate tax deductible business expenses.

For the payee, Form 1099-MISC reports the taxable earnings received in the previous calendar year.


Some non-employee income payments do not require a Form 1099-MISC. For example, payments to corporations generally do not require a 1099-MISC, except for medical and health care payments and attorney fees.

Also, land rental payments to real estate agents and payments for hauling grain and livestock do not require Form 1099-MISC.

In certain situations, purchase of materials and supplies are subject to 1099-MISC reporting.

For example, when an independent contractor, who is not also a dealer in supplies, performs work and provides the materials, the entire payment must be recorded on Form 1099-MISC.

If the payee normally deals in supplies, the payer reports only the payment for services rendered, but not the value of the materials.

Farm and ranch-related expenses that do not require a 1099-MISC include feed, seed, fertilizer, chemicals, fuel and other non-service items.

Completion of the form

Form 1099-MISC requires reporting of nonemployee compensation including rent, royalties, commissions, fees and other income.

A completed form must include the payer and payee name, address and tax identification number.

An individual tax identification number is provided by the payee on a W-9 form. If the payee fails to supply their social security number (or other identification number), the payer is required to withhold a federal income tax payment.

Generally, payments reported on Form 1099-MISC are subject to self-employment taxes (Medicare and Social Security), but are not withheld by the payer.

Other 1099 forms submitted

Some farmers and ranchers are involved in transactions that require the submission of other 1099 forms.

For example, borrowing money for business purposes when interest is paid requires the submission of Form 1099-INT.

This is used to report more than $600 in interest paid by a borrower. Farmers and ranchers (as borrowers) may also be involved with the cancellation of debt. If so, Form 1099-C is used. When this occurs the debtor is required to report the cancelled debt as taxable income. For the person who forgave the debt, the principal and interest are tax deductible.

Form 1099-MISC and other 1099 forms can be ordered from the IRS on the IRS website.

Any producer with questions concerning the submission of 1099 forms should consult with a competent tax advisor or attorney.

1099 forms received

Farmers and ranchers also receive 1099 forms. For example, farmers and ranchers will receive a Form 1099-MISC if income was earned from custom work, rental payments, crop insurance proceeds or other nonemployee compensation. Other 1099 forms that producers may receive include:

Form 1099-A reports proceeds from forfeiture of pledged crops to the Commodity Credit Corporation Loan or CCC in full payment of a loan.

Form 1099-PATR reports taxable distributions received from cooperatives.

Form 1099-G reports certain payments from the federal government – such as Conservation Reserve Program or CRP payments.

Form 1099-S reports proceeds from real estate transactions.

Penalties imposed for failure to issue 1099 forms

If someone fails to send out 1099 forms in accordance with the regulations, he or she could face monetary penalties. Penalties for failure to file range from $30-$100 per 1099 for late filings or up to $250 per 1099 for intentional disregard.

For further information please see IRS Publication 225, Farmer’s Tax Guide. http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p225.pdf.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is believed to be reliable and correct. However, no guarantee or warranty is provided for its accuracy or completeness. This information is provided exclusively for educational purposes and any action or inaction or decisions made as the result of reading this material is solely the responsibility of readers. The author(s) and South Dakota State University disclaim any responsibility for loss associated with the use of this information.